Skip Navigation LinksHome Page    >    Mental illnesses - psychiatric problems
Pregnancy links...
Health links...
Genetics links...
Medical links...
Autism links...
Other links...

Mental illnesses - psychiatric problems

Clinical types

The term mental illness encompasses several different disorders including schizophrenia, depression (depressive illness), manic-depressive disorder, etc. The causes of these diseases are currently unknown, but they are probably varied and diverse.

Depressive illness affects 2% - 3% of the general population. It can be unipolar - i.e. the patient will suffer only from depression - or it can be bipolar, i.e. it is associated with mania and the condition is then called manic-depression. There is a clear genetic effect that can be deduced from the fact that if one identical twin suffers from depression, the other has a 50% risk of also being affected. This is compared to only 17% for non-identical twins. Untreated, there is a 20% risk for suicide. Women are more prone to suffer from these diseases.

Schizophrenia affects 1% of the general population. The severity varies in different patients, but all require treatment and periodic hospitalization. Untreated, patients will behave in an increasingly bizarre manner and may become dangerous. There is a real risk that such patients will pose a danger to other people (leading to their committing murder), to themselves (leading to their committing suicide), or both.

Clinical signs

Depressive illness and manic-depressive disorder manifest as emotional disorders of different degrees of severity. The causes are currently unknown, but are probably varied and diverse.

Schizophrenia, a psychosis, is characterized by hallucinations where the patient hears voices, or more rarely sees visions or senses odors, which are not real and exist only in his mind as a result of the illness, and delusions, which are a distorted perception of reality and sometimes involve paranoid delusions (paranoia), where the patient is convinced that someone is trying to kill him or poison him, or that other people can read his thoughts, etc.

Inheritance pattern

The pattern of inheritance is still not clear, but there are undoubtedly hereditary factors. Transmission appears to be multifactorial, i.e. a number of genes, some of which are situated on autosomal chromosomes and some on the X chromosome, in conjunction with environmental conditions, determine whether a particular person will develop a mental illness. The more patients there are in a family, the earlier the age of onset, the more severe the disease, and the more closely related the person is to a patient, the greater the genetic predisposition and risk for developing a mental illness and for transmitting it to offspring. Depression and manic-depressive disorder are more likely to be hereditary.


In depression, about 50%.

Associated features that can be demonstrated by imagery

Usually there are no defects that can be identified by ultrasound examination during pregnancy.

What is the risk that other relatives (or a fetus) will have the same condition? According to the degree of the relationship to a known patient in the family:

Degree of relationship to subject (or fetus) Schizophrenia or an undefined mental illness Depression or manic depressive disorder
No affected relative (normal risk in population) 1% 2% - 3%
Affected sibling 9% 13%
Affected parent 13% 15%
Affected sibling and parent 15% 20%
Both parents affected 45% 50%
Affected sibling and second-degree relative (uncle, grandparent, etc.) 3% 5%
Affected identical twin 40% 70%
Affected non-identical twin 10% 20%
Affected third-degree relative (cousin, great uncle, etc.) 1% - 2% 2% - 3%

Molecular genetic information

The genes for the diseases

Definitive genes have not yet been found, but there are a number of loci in the genome that are associated with a genetic tendency for mental disorders.


Genes have been examined in a number of chromosomes. There are probably a number of genes that have a role in the causation of the diseases, but until the picture is clearer, it is not practical to examine families with these disorders. The regions in the genome that might contain genes contributing to the development of mental disorders include 11p, Xp28, 5q, 9q34, and chromosomes 13, 15, and 18.

Genetic testing

Diagnostic testing

There are to date no clinical genetic tests available. Only in families with multiple cases is it possible to carry out investigations that may lead to the possibility of performing practical tests in some families in the future, initially by indirect tests (linkage analysis), and in the more distant future, once the gene itself has been found, by identifying the mutation or mutations. This will be done in cooperation with a genetic institute. See information sheet: Indirect testing for genetic markers in a family that has one or several patients - when there are a number of different genes that can each cause the disease - the gene, or most of the genes not having been located / identified / mapped - multifactorial diseases.

Carrier testing

This cannot usually be performed. See above under diagnostic testing.

Fetal testing

This cannot usually be performed. See above under diagnostic testing.
Haven't found what you're looking for? Search for it here:   
Comments (17)

Monday, July 23, 2018 1:40 AM
(1) Click here  says:

Click here

It needs to be seen that at the same time as inquiring for papers available to be gained at paper making association, you may get the unkind factor of view. on the off danger that you're feeling that the pro is endeavoring to cheat you, don't purchase ask about the mission from it.Click here

Thursday, August 9, 2018 6:20 AM
(2) american attorne  says:

american attorney general

We're designed to construct the eCommerce business you have constantly dreamed of. We assist traders international to grow quicker, provoke clients and earn more with the full-featured, cozy and consumer-friendly capability. A treasured article. I absolutely admire for this top-notch statistics. american attorney general

Thursday, August 9, 2018 7:13 AM
(3) See more  says:

See more

The commercial enterprise identities are in recent times flocking to get websites published, registered and hosted on the internet. Seeing to the exponential demand, the market is witnessing mushrooming of a number of website design and development groups. I actually welcome it. See more

Friday, August 10, 2018 4:39 AM
(4) http://joannwell  says:

Need to find a good blog post idea? Then let Google search engine give you a whole array of ideas to choose from. Just by putting ' blog ideas' in the search tool, you come across many sites with suggestions for what to write in your blog.

Friday, August 10, 2018 11:12 PM
(5) attorney  says:


Great info! I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have. attorney

Saturday, August 11, 2018 5:46 AM
(6) paket tour jogja  says:

paket tour jogja

Maintain on putting up definitely inspired after reading this due to a few pleasant paintings and informative thoughts. I just wanna say thanks for the writer and want you all of the satisfactory for coming!.paket tour jogja

Monday, August 13, 2018 6:34 AM
(7) movie mp3 song d  says:

movie mp3 song download

While your app no longer operating nicely or not responding then replace your app from your app keep or you could additionally re-install the app for your device then its paintings. i'm able to deal with web page wherein it is cool defined. movie mp3 song download

Thursday, August 30, 2018 7:15 AM
(8) Hirsch Drive  says:


I'm always searching out a few unfastened kinds of stuff over the net. there are also some agencies which give unfastened samples. superb and interesting article. extraordinary matters you've got usually shared with us. thanks. simply hold composing this type of submitting. free models

Thursday, September 27, 2018 7:37 AM
(9) Evan Hilton  says:


What are the stairs you need to take to know how to compose a decent weblog? Is it true that you are looking out motivation in your ensuing weblog post? Here are forty best titles for you as an approach to motivate your ensuing weblog, You can exchange up the circumstance to accommodate your undertaking and a hole inside your venture - attempt a couple out.

Tuesday, October 2, 2018 4:30 AM
(10) Finlay Perkins  says:


Nearly all will agree on fulfillment in internet advertising will frequently hinge around whether or now not a respectable website is hired as a promotional device. It is a great web page publish without fail. I am impressed that there are so many facts about this challenge that has been uncovered and you’ve defeated your self this time, most do apprehend the need for making and high-quality website. casual shoes online

Friday, October 5, 2018 5:33 AM
(11) Maik Winkel  says:


This is my first time I visit here. I found such a large number of exciting stuff on your weblog especially its talk. From the piles of remarks to your articles, I bet I am not the best one having all the excitement ideal here! keep up the best work. lawyer auto accident

Saturday, October 6, 2018 3:36 AM
(12) Ralph Faerber  says:


You re inside the motivation in the back of truth a without contamination website online administrator. The internet site stacking speed is surprising. It sort of feels that you're doing any unmistakable entice. Moreover, The substance is an appropriate gem. You've got were given finished a first-rate interest in recognizing this trouble! best web development

Wednesday, October 10, 2018 4:13 AM
(13) Drown  says:


I was interested about in the event that you was aware of any discourse sheets that cover similar subjects discussed in this article? I'd extremely get a kick out of the chance to be a piece of an online network where I can get remarks from other experienced individuals that offer a similar intrigue. In the event that you have any suggestions, if you don't mind let me know. Good health!Shape Globe

Monday, October 15, 2018 11:58 PM
(14) Brown  says:


I dont assume Ive read anything along these lines previously. So decent to reveal someone with some unique thoughts regarding this matter. realy thank you for starting this up.Men Shoes in pakistan

Monday, October 29, 2018 1:29 AM
(15) marsh  says:


It's a substantial satisfaction examining your disperse. Its total amount of realities I'm finding as well as I intend to disperse a remark that "The material of your distribute is amazing" amazing job.roofing materials

Wednesday, November 14, 2018 12:46 AM
(16) See more  says:

See more

This was rather as a result of himself and his frequently indifferent personality, halfway on account of the different leveled control relationships in the Austrian group. His very first group advisor, Herbert Prohaska, an interminable detainee in between the one hand and the other, usually placed three amusements on Vastic - and also after that three diversions once again not on him

Friday, December 14, 2018 6:54 AM
(17) read more  says:

read more

A financial debt of admiration remains in order for posting this information. I just call for to notify you that I merely take a look at your internet site and additionally similarly I uncover it extremely extraordinary along with academic. I can hardly wait to look varieties of your messages.

Leave a Comment
Email (will not be published)
Website (optional)
Your Comment

Line and paragraph breaks are automatic. Some HTML allowed: <a href="" title="">, <b>, <i>, <strike>

Please type the characters you see in the picture:

All content Copyright © 2009-2011, Genetics of Pregnancy Encyclopedia Corporation. All rights reserved.